There are approximately 2.6 million orphans in Kenya, 46% orphaned due to HIV/AIDS, representing 13% of children under 18 in the country. This policy brief summarizes findings related to orphan care from four peer-reviewed publications from the Orphaned and Separated Children’s Assessments Related to their (OSCAR’s) Health and Well-Being Project. The OSCAR Pro-ject is a 5-year longitudinal cohort study evaluating the effects of different care environments on the physical and mental health outcomes of orphaned and separated children in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. The study follows 2941 orphaned and separated (OSC) children living in 300 households and 19 Charitable Children’s Institutions (CCI’s). Specifically, this policy brief reports on the existing models of care for orphaned and separated children, maltreatment experiences and the human rights of orphans, the effectiveness of the government cash-transfer to orphaned and vulnerable children (CT-OVC) program, and nutri-tional status and adequacy of children’s diets among children living in family-based environments, CCI’s, and on the street .